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The existence of a magnetic-like gravitational field has been well established by physicists for general relativity, gravitational theories, and cosmology. The consequences of the effect of electromagnetically-affected gravity could be substantial and have many practical applications, particularly in aviation and space exploration.

There are methods known for converting electromagnetism into a propulsive force that potentially generates a large propulsive thrust. According to these methods, the machine thrust is produced by rotating, reciprocating masses in the following ways: centrifugal thrust, momentum thrust, and impulse thrust. ("To the Stars by Electromagnetic Propulsion", M. T. French, http://www.mtjf.demon.co.uk/antigravp2.htm#cforce).

However, the electromagnetic propulsion in an ambient space, or space that is not artificially modified, is not practical for interstellar travel because of the great distances involved. No interstellar travel is feasible without some form of distortion of space. In turn, no alteration of space is possible without the corresponding deformation of time. Gravitomagnetic alteration of space, resulting in the space-time curvature anomaly that could propel the space vehicle, could be a feasible approach to future space travel.

In the late 1940s, H. B. G. Casimir proved that the vacuum is neither particle nor field-free. It is a source of zero-point-fluctuation (ZPF) of fields such as the vacuum gravitomagnetic field. ZPF fields lead to real, measurable physical consequences such as the Casimir force. The quantised hand-made electromagnetic processes, such as those occurring in superconductors, affect the similarly quantised ZPFs. The most likely reason is the electron-positron creation and annihilation, in part corresponding to the "polarisation effect" sited by Evgeny Podkletnov in explaining the gravitomagnetic effect reportedly observed by him in 1992. ("Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu33O(7-x) Superconductor Below 70 K Under E.M. Field", Evgeny Podkletnov, LANL database number cond-mat/9701074, v. 3, 10 pages, 16 Sep. 1997).

The investigation of gravitomagnetism, however, started well before Podkletnov. In the U.S. Pat. No. 3,626,605, Henry Wm. Wallace describes an experimental apparatus for generating and detecting a secondary gravitational field. He also shows how a time-varying gravitomagnetic field can be used to shield the primary background of a gravitoelectric field.

In the U.S. Pat. No. 3,626,606, Henry Wm. Wallace provides a variation of his earlier experiment. A type III-V semiconductor material, of which both components have unpaired nuclear spin, is used as an electronic detector for the gravitomagnetic field. The experiment demonstrates that the material in his gravitomagnetic field circuit has hysterisis and remanence effects analogous to magnetic materials.

In the U.S. Pat. No. 3,823,570, Henry Wm. Wallace provides an additional variation of his experiment. Wallace demonstrates that, by aligning the nuclear spin of materials having an odd number of nucleons, a change in specific heat occurs.

In the U.S. Pat. No. 5,197,279, James R. Taylor discloses Electromagnetic Propulsion Engine where solenoid windings generate an electromagnetic field that, without the conversion into a gravitomagnetic field, generates the thrust necessary for the propulsion.

In the U.S. Pat. No. 6,353,311 B1, John P. Brainard et al. offer a controversial theory of Universal Particle Flux Field, and in order to prove it empirically, provide a shaded motor-type device. This device is also intended for extracting energy from this hypothetical Field.

In the early 1980s, Sidney Coleman and F. de Luca noted that the Einsteinean postulate of a homogeneous Universe, while correct in general, ignores quantised local fluctuation of the pressure of inflationary vacuum state, this fluctuation causing local cosmic calamities. While the mass-less particles propagate through large portions of Universe at light speed, these anomaly bubbles, depending on their low or high relative vacuum density, cause a local increase or decrease of the propagation values for these particles. Scientists disagree about the possibility, and possible ways, to artificially create models of such anomalies.

In the early 1990s, Ning Li and D. G Torr described a method and means for converting an electromagnetic field into a gravitomagnetic field. Li and Torr suggested that, under the proper conditions, the minuscule force fields of superconducting atoms can "couple", compounding in strength to the point where they can produce a repulsion force ("Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on Pure Superconductors", N. Li and D. G. Torr, Physical Review, Volume 43, Page 457, 3 pages, 15 Jan. 1991).

A series of experiments, performed in the early 1990s by Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, reportedly resulted in a reduction of the weights of objects placed above a levitating, rotating superconductive disk subjected to high frequency magnetic fields. These results substantially support the expansion of Einstainean physics offered by Li & Torr. Podkletnov and Giovanni Modanese have provided a number of interesting theories as to why the weight reduction effect could have occurred, citing quantum gravitational effects, specifically, a local change in the cosmological constant. The cosmological constant, under ordinary circumstances, is the same everywhere. But, according to Podkletnov and Modanese, above a levitating, rotating superconductive disk exposed to high frequency magnetic fields, it is modified. ("Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged YBa2Cu33O7-y Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure", Evgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese, arXiv.org/physics database, #0108005 volume 2, 32 pages, 8 figures, Aug. 30, 2001).

In the July 2004 paper, Ning Wu hypothesised that exponential decay of the gravitation gauge field, characteristic for the unstable vacuum such as that created by Podkletnov and Nieminen, is at the root of the gravitational shielding effects (Gravitational Shielding Effects in Gauge Theory of Gravity, Ning Wu, arXiv:hep-th/0307225 v 1 23 Jul. 2003, 38 pages incl. 3 figures, July 2004).

In 2002, Edward Fomalont and Sergei Kopeikin measured the speed of propagation of gravity. They confirmed that the speed of propagation of gravity matches the speed of light. ("General Relativistic Model for Experimental Measurement of the Speed of Propagation of Gravity by VLBI", S. Kopeikin and E. Fomalont, Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium Jun. 25-28 2002, Bonn, Germany, 4 pages).

String theory unifies gravity with all other known forces. According to String theory, all interactions are carried by fundamental particles, and all particles are just tiny loops of space itself forming the space-time curvature. Gravity and bent space are the same thing, propagating with the speed of light characteristic of the particular curvature. In light of the Fomalont and Kopeikin discovery, one can conclude that if there is a change in the speed of propagation of gravity within the space-time curvature, then the speed of light within the locality would also be affected.

In general relativity, any form of energy affects the gravitational field, so the vacuum energy density becomes a potentially crucial ingredient. Traditionally, the vacuum is assumed to be the same everywhere in the Universe, so the vacuum energy density is a universal number. The cosmological constant Lambda is proportional to the vacuum pressure: : =(8<3/ Where:

G is Newton's constant of gravitation and c is the speed of light

("The Cosmological Constant", Sean M. Carroll, http://pancake.uchicago.edu/~carroll/encyc/, 6 pages). Newer theories, however, permit local vacuum fluctuations where even the "universal" constants are affected:


Analysing physics laws defining the cosmological constant, a conclusion can be drawn that, if a levitating, rotating superconductive disk subjected to high frequency magnetic fields affects the cosmological constant within a locality, it would also affect the vacuum energy density. According to the general relativity theory, the gravitational attraction is explained as the result of the curvature of space-time being proportional to the cosmological constant. Thus, the change in the gravitational attraction of the vacuum's subatomic particles would cause a local anomaly in the curvature of the Einsteinean space-time.

Time is the fourth dimension. Lorentz and Einstein showed that space and time are intrinsically related. Later in his life, Einstein hypothesised that time fluctuates both locally and universally. Ruggero Santilli, recognised for expanding relativity theory, has developed the isocosmology theory, which allows for variable rates of time. Time is also a force field only detected at speeds above light speed. The energy of this force field grows as its propagation speed declines when approaching light-speed. Not just any light-speed: the light-speed of a locale. If the conditions of the locale were modified, this change would affect the local time rate relative to the rate outside the affected locale, or ambient rate. The electromagnetically-generated gravitomagnetic field could be one such locale modifier.

Analysing the expansion of Einstainean physics offered by Li & Torr, one could conclude that gravity, time, and light speed could be altered by the application of electromagnetic force to a superconductor.

By creating a space-time curvature anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state around a space vehicle, with the lowest vacuum pressure density located directly in front of the vehicle, a condition could be created where gravity associated with lowered vacuum pressure density pulls the vehicle forward in modified space-time.

By creating a space-time curvature anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state around the space vehicle, with the point of highest vacuum pressure density located directly behind the vehicle, a condition could be created where a repulsion force associated with elevated vacuum pressure density pushes the space vehicle forward in modified space-time. From the above-mentioned cosmological constant equation, re-written as:

pA ~ S'

it is clear that the increase in the vacuum pressure density could lead to a substantial increase in the light-speed. If the space vehicle is moving in the anomaly where the local light-speed is higher than the light-speed of the ambient vacuum, and if this vehicle approaches this local light-speed, the space vehicle would then possibly exceed the light-speed characteristic for the ambient area.

The levitating and rotating superconductor disk, which Podkletnov used to protect the object of experiment from the attraction produced by the energy of the vacuum, was externally energised by the externally-powered solenoid coils. Thus, Podkletnov's system is stationary by definition and not suitable for travel in air or space. Even if the superconductive disk is made part of the craft, and if it is energised by the energy available on the craft, the resulting anomaly is one-sided, not enveloping, and not providing the variable speed of light (VSL) environment for the craft.

In a recent (2002) article, Chris Y. Tailor and Modanese propose to employ an impulse gravity generator directing, from an outside location, an anomalous beam toward a spacecraft, this beam acting as a repulsion force field producing propulsion for the spacecraft. ("Evaluation of an Impulse Gravity Generator Based Beamed Propulsion Concept", Chris Y. Taylor and Giovanni Modanese, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 2002, 21 pages, 10 figures). The authors of the article, however, didn't take into account the powerful quantised processes of field dispersion, which would greatly limit the distance of propagation of the repulsive force. At best, the implementation of this concept could assist in acceleration and deceleration at short distances from the impulse gravity generator, and only along a straight line of travel. If the travel goal is a space exploration mission rather than the shuttle-like commute, the proposed system is of little use.

Only a self-sufficient craft, equipped with the internal gravity generator and the internal energy source powering this generator, would have the flexibility needed to explore new frontiers of space. The modification of the space-time curvature all around the spacecraft would allow the spacecraft to approach the light-speed characteristic for the modified locale, this light-speed, when observed from a location in the ambient space, being potentially many times higher than the ambient light-speed. Then, under sufficient local energies, that is, energies available on the spacecraft, very large intergalactic distances could be reduced to conventional planetary distances.

In "The First Men in the Moon" (1903), H. G. Wells anticipates gravitational propulsion methods when he describes gravity repelling "cavorite." Discovered by Professor Cavor, the material acts as a "gravity shield" allowing Cavor's vehicle to reach the Moon. Prof. Cavor built a large spherical gondola surrounded on all sides by cavorite shutters that could be closed or opened. When Prof. Cavor closed all the shutters facing the ground and opened the shutters facing the moon, the gondola took off for the Moon.

Until today, no cavorite has been discovered. However, recent research in the area of superconductivity, nano materials and quantum state of vacuum, including that of Li, Torr, Podkletnov, and Modanese, has resulted in important new information about the interaction between a gravitational field and special states of matter at a quantum level. This new research opens the possibility of using new electromagnetically-energised superconductive materials allowing stable states of energy, the materials useful not only in controlling the local gravitational fields, but also in creating new gravitomagnetic fields.